- Check you have the most recent version of Chrome (spanner / About Google Chrome).
- Uninstall Google Chrome to Phone extension in Chrome.
- Reinstall Google Chrome to Phone extension in Chrome.
- Clear data from the Chrome to Phone app on your Android device (Menu / Settings / Applications / Manage applications / select Chrome to Phone from downloaded applications / click "Clear data" button).
- Open Chrome to Phone app on your Android device (Menu / All apps / Chrome to Phone), click "Next" and select the account you want to use (I chose my Gmail account), click "Next", chose your link action preference (I chose "Automatically launch links"), click "Next" and then "Finish".
- Send a test webpage from your Chrome browser to check it works.
I suspect doing steps 4 and 5 would have been enough.